| Nalychevsky Nature Park
by N.Kraev, E.Lobkov, A.Nechaev.
Text by V.Menshikov.
Nature Park - established on August 18,1995 by Governor Vladimir
A Biryukov, it became the first state conservation recreational
site established on on the Kamchatka Region. On December 6,1996,
the park was included on the World Heritage List. Park's land
size - 309320 ha. It contains many unique and fragile natural
sites which were in need of protection.
The area has a complex geological construction and interesting
history of volcano magma and hydrothermal activity. It is comprised
of the valley of Nalychevo River which flows out to the Pacific
Ocean and surrounding ancient, mostly extinct volcanoes. The 4
the highest active volcanoes are Koryaksky (3456m above sea level)
which last eruption in 1956, Zhupanovsky (2927m), last eruption
in 1957, Avachinsky (2741m), erupted in 1991, and Dzendzur (2285m),
historical eruptions are not recorded but fumarole activity is
registered. At the upper reaches of Nalychevo River on land of
40km2 some thermal and mineral springs are concentrated (temperature
14 - 75C and total debit- up to 200 l/sec). Of these the best
known are Nalychevskie, Talovye, Shaibnye, Kraevedcheskie, Dzendzurskie,
and Shumskie. Here cold mineral springs are also found - Aagskie,
and Koryakskie. Nalychevskie, the biggest of these springs, releases
more than 50 Iiters of water per second. The name Nalychevski
refers to a very rare type of "carbonaceous, arsenious, boracic,
concentrated by a number ofmicrocomponents". These deposits are
unique in the world.
park has scenic mountain, tundra and sea landscapes. Combination
of present volcanic and ancient glacial landscapes, specific microclimatic
conditions of the valley of Nalychevo River condition the richness
and diversity of flora and fauna, most species are presented in
the Red Book Periodic volcano eruptions lead to the death of vegetation
on sizable areas, therefore it is possible to study here the process
of rehabilitation of plants on lava fields and lava flows of different
age Vegetation that appear on hydro-thermal changed soils near
hot mineralized springs has a special interest for research Erman
Birch (stone) forests in the vicinities of hot springs are unique
because of high non-typical for Kamchatka grassy layer of rare
species of Orchid family including wonderful lady's slipper.
Geographical location of the park is optimal for recreation use
South boundary of the park is in 10-15km from the community Petropavlovsk-Yelizovo
and coincides with a green boundary of these cities. It takes
20-25 min to get to the park's center by helicopter Park's area
is the most well-known and accessible place for many inhabitants
of the peninsula. Each year thousands of pupils and tourists make
foot and ski tours to the scenic place of rest and cure at Nalychevo
hot springs. There is a trail from Pinachevo village to the park's
central part, its length is 44 km.
regime of nature use and conservation is settled in the Nalychevo
Nature Park. Therefore, any activity on its area can be carried
out only with permission of the Kamchatka Nature Parks Directorate.
Fauna is presented by 33 species of mammals. The biggest are bear,
deer and snow sheep. Nalychevo River valley is a place of bear
season concentration in the period of salmon spawning and berry
season. Volcano slopes and Nalychevo Cape rocks are the habitats
of bighorn sheep. List of birds numbers nearly 145 species (including
90 nest birds). Specially protected are brant goose, Steller's
sea eagle, white-tailed eagle, gyrfalcon, peregrine falcon, and
golden eagle. Five species of Pacific salmon spawn in Nalychevo
River and its tributaries. Rare species of char salmon and Kamchatka
mikizha can be seen here.